Posts Tagged With: prophets

Translating the Twelve: Hosea 2:12-13

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 2:12-13 (2:10-11 in English)

12 וְעַתָּ֛ה אֲגַלֶּ֥ה אֶת־נַבְלֻתָ֖הּ לְעֵינֵ֣י מְאַהֲבֶ֑יהָ וְאִ֖ישׁ לֹֽא־יַצִּילֶ֥נָּה מִיָּדִֽי׃

13 וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי֙ כָּל־מְשׂוֹשָׂ֔הּ חַגָּ֖הּ חָדְשָׁ֣הּ וְשַׁבַּתָּ֑הּ וְכֹ֖ל מוֹעֲדָֽהּ׃

12. And now I will uncover1 her immodesty before the eyes of her lovers2 and no one will snatch her3 from my hand.

13. Then I will put an end4 to all her joy, her feasts, her new moons, and her Sabbaths and all her festivals.

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Footnotes

1. Piel yqtl 1cs גלה
2. Piel ptc mp + 3fs אהב
3. Hif yqtl 3ms + 3fs נצל
4. Hif wqtl 1cs שבת

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 2:10-11

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 2:10-11 (2:8-9 in English)

10 וְהִיא֙ לֹ֣א יָֽדְעָ֔ה כִּ֤י אָֽנֹכִי֙ נָתַ֣תִּי לָ֔הּ הַדָּגָ֖ן וְהַתִּיר֣וֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָ֑ר וְכֶ֨סֶף הִרְבֵּ֥יתִי לָ֛הּ וְזָהָ֖ב עָשׂ֥וּ לַבָּֽעַל׃

11 לָכֵ֣ן אָשׁ֔וּב וְלָקַחְתִּ֤י דְגָנִי֙ בְּעִתֹּ֔ו וְתִירוֹשִׁ֖י בְּמֽוֹעֲדֹ֑ו וְהִצַּלְתִּי֙ צַמְרִ֣י וּפִשְׁתִּ֔י לְכַסּ֖וֹת אֶת־עֶרְוָתָֽהּ׃

 

10. Yet she did not know1 that I gave2 her the grain and the new wine and the fresh oil and increased3 the silver for her as well as gold (they offered4 them to Baal).

11. So I will return5 and take back6 my grain during its time and my fresh wine in its season. I will also snatch away7 my wool and my linen which was used to clothe8 her nakedness.

 

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Footnotes

1. Qal qtl 3fs ידע
2. Qal qtl 1cs נתן
3. Hif qtl 1cs רבהז
4. Qal qtl 3mp עשה
5. Qal yqtl 1cs שוב
6. Qal wqtl 1cs לקח
7. Hif wqtl 1cs נצל
8. Piel inf cons כסה

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 2:8-9

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 2:8-9

8 לָכֵ֛ן הִנְנִי־שָׂ֥ךְ אֶת־דַּרְכֵּ֖ךְ בַּסִּירִ֑ים וְגָֽדַרְתִּי֙ אֶת־גְּדֵרָ֔הּ וּנְתִיבוֹתֶ֖יהָ לֹ֥א תִמְצָֽא׃

9 וְרִדְּפָ֤ה אֶת־מְאַהֲבֶ֨יהָ֙ וְלֹֽא־תַשִּׂ֣יג אֹתָ֔ם וּבִקְשָׁ֖תַם וְלֹ֣א תִמְצָ֑א וְאָמְרָ֗ה אֵלְכָ֤ה וְאָשׁ֨וּבָה֙ אֶל־אִישִׁ֣י הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן כִּ֣י ט֥וֹב לִ֛י אָ֖ז מֵעָֽתָּה׃

 

 

8. So behold, I am hedging1 your way with thorns and I will close off2 her wall so that she will not find3 her path.

9. Then she will pursue4 her lovers5 and she will not reach6 them. She will seek7 them yet she will not find8 them. So she will say9, “I will leave10 so that I may return11 to my first husband. It was better back then than now.”

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

Nothing major today

Footnotes

1. Qal ptc ms שוך
2. Qal wqtl 1cs גדר
3. Qal Yqtl 3fs מצא
4. Piel wqtl 3fs רדף
5. Piel ptc mp + 3fs אהב
6. Hif yqtl 3fs נשג
7. Piel wqtl 3fs + 3mp בקש
8. Qal yqtl 3fs מצא
9. Qal yqtl 3fs אמר
10. Qal yqtl 1cs הלך
11. Qal coh 1cs שוב

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 2:5-7

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 2:5-7 (2:3-5 in English)

5 פֶּן־אַפְשִׁיטֶ֣נָּה עֲרֻמָּ֔ה וְהִ֨צַּגְתִּ֔יהָ כְּי֖וֹם הִוָּֽלְדָ֑הּ וְשַׂמְתִּ֣יהָ כַמִּדְבָּ֗ר וְשַׁתִּ֨הָ֙ כְּאֶ֣רֶץ צִיָּ֔ה וַהֲמִתִּ֖יהָ בַּצָּמָֽא׃

6 וְאֶת־בָּנֶ֖יהָ לֹ֣א אֲרַחֵ֑ם כִּֽי־בְנֵ֥י זְנוּנִ֖ים הֵֽמָּה׃

7 כִּ֤י זָֽנְתָה֙ אִמָּ֔ם הֹבִ֖ישָׁה הֽוֹרָתָ֑ם כִּ֣י אָמְרָ֗ה אֵלְכָ֞ה אַחֲרֵ֤י מְאַהֲבַי֙ נֹתְנֵ֤י לַחְמִי֙ וּמֵימַ֔י צַמְרִ֣י וּפִשְׁתִּ֔י שַׁמְנִ֖י וְשִׁקּוּיָֽי׃

5. Lest I strip her1 naked and display her2 as on the day of her birth3. Then I will set her4 like the wilderness and I will make her5 like the dry earth when I put it to death6 with thirst.

6. And her children I will not love7 because they are children from adultery.

7. For she committed adultery8 with them and was put to shame9 when she because pregnant by them.10 For she said11, “let me go12 after my lovers13, the ones who give14 me bread and water, wool and linen, oil and refreshment.

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

Hopefully I’ll come back to this later

Footnotes

1. Hif yqtl 1cs + 3fs פשט
2. Hif wqtl 1cs +3fs יצג
3. Nif inf cons ילד
4. Qal qtl 1cs + 3fs שים
5. Qal wqtl 1cs + 3fs שית
6. Hif qtl 3fs מות
7. Piel yqtl 1cs רחם
8. Qal qtl 3fs זנה
9. Hif qtl 3fs בוש
10. Qal ptc fs הרה
11. Qal qtl 3fs אמר
12. Qal coh 1cs הלך
13. Piel ptc mp אהב
14. Qal ptc mp נתן

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 2:3-4

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 2:3-4 (2:1-2 in English)

3 אִמְר֥וּ לַאֲחֵיכֶ֖ם עַמִּ֑י וְלַאֲחֽוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם רֻחָֽמָה׃

4 רִ֤יבוּ בְאִמְּכֶם֙ רִ֔יבוּ כִּֽי־הִיא֙ לֹ֣א אִשְׁתִּ֔י וְאָנֹכִ֖י לֹ֣א אִישָׁ֑הּ וְתָסֵ֤ר זְנוּנֶ֨יהָ֙ מִפָּנֶ֔יה וְנַאֲפוּפֶ֖יהָ מִבֵּ֥ין שָׁדֶֽיהָ׃

 

3. Say1 to y’all’s brothers, “My People” and to y’all’s sisters “She Received Mercy.”2

4. Contend3 with y’all’s mother. Contend4 because she is not my wife and I am not her husband. Then she may put away5 her immoralities from her presence and her adulteries from between her breasts.

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

Not much to say here. I think this makes more sense when verse three is read earlier context. The masculine plural you in the command is referring back to the gathering on the great day of Jezreel.

Footnotes

1. Qal imv mp אמר
2. Pual qtl 3fs רחם
3. Qal imv mp ריב
4. Qal imv mp ריב
5. Hif juss 3fs סור

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 2:2

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 2:2 (Or 1:11 in English)

2 וְ֠נִקְבְּצוּ בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָ֤ה וּבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו וְשָׂמ֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם רֹ֥אשׁ אֶחָ֖ד וְעָל֣וּ מִן־הָאָ֑רֶץ כִּ֥י גָד֖וֹל י֥וֹם יִזְרְעֶֽאל׃

2. Then the people of Judah and the people of Israel will be gathered1 together and they will set2 for themselves one head and they will withdraw3 from the land because of the great day of Jezreel.

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

None today, sorry 😦

Footnotes

1. Nif wqtl 3cp קבצ
2. Qal wqtl 3cp שים
3. Qal wqtl 3cp עלה

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 2:1

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 2:1 (1:10 in English)

1 וְֽ֠הָיָה מִסְפַּ֤ר בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כְּח֣וֹל הַיָּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־יִמַּ֖ד וְלֹ֣א יִסָּפֵ֑ר וְֽ֠הָיָה בִּמְק֞וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יֵאָמֵ֤ר לָהֶם֙ לֹֽא־עַמִּ֣י אַתֶּ֔ם יֵאָמֵ֥ר לָהֶ֖ם בְּנֵ֥י אֵֽל־חָֽי׃

1. Then the number of the children of Israel will become1 like the sand of the sea which cannot be measured2 and cannot be counted.3 Then,4 instead of when it would be said5 to them, “You are not my people,” it will now be said6 to them, “You are sons of the living God.”

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

1. “Then…”–I think the ו’s here are just moving the narrative along. I find then to be a helpful narrative mover.
“Then…”–This second go around is the same thing, but I also think it clues the reader in that the second is more concerned about time than locale (which I know is contrary to every major translation).
“Instead of when…”–Every single other translation renders this “in the place where” but I’m not convinced. For one, I think the “when” is referencing “that day” as we have already seen it poking his head into the prophecy in verse 5. Secondly, each time the switch is referred it is a temporal comparison: “In a little while” vs 4; “In that day” vs 5. “No more (many translate ‘no longer’) vs 6. and now he says instead of when
“It would be said”–I’m using the contingent aspect of the imperfect. Had God not saved his people through Yahweh, it would have been said of them, “They are not my people.” On the contrary:
“It will now be said”–Just a simple future. I added the ‘now’ to emphasize the contrasting of what would have happened vs what has happened.
“You are”–Added the “You are” as ellipsis; it helps smooth out the contrast.

Footnotes

1. Qal wqtl 3ms היה
2. Nif yqtl 3ms מדד
3. Nif yqtl 3ms ספר
4. Qal wqtl 3ms היה
5. Nif yqtl 3ms אמר
6. Nif yqtl 3ms אמר

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 1:7-9

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 1:7-9

7 וְאֶת־בֵּ֤ית יְהוּדָה֙ אֲרַחֵ֔ם וְהֽוֹשַׁעְתִּ֖ים בַּיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיהֶ֑ם וְלֹ֣א אֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֗ם בְּקֶ֤שֶׁת וּבְחֶ֨רֶב֙ וּבְמִלְחָמָ֔ה בְּסוּסִ֖ים וּבְפָרָשִֽׁים׃

8 וַתִּגְמֹ֖ל אֶת־לֹ֣א רֻחָ֑מָה וַתַּ֖הַר וַתֵּ֥לֶד בֵּֽן׃

9 וַיֹּ֕אמֶר קְרָ֥א שְׁמֹ֖ו לֹ֣א עַמִּ֑י כִּ֤י אַתֶּם֙ לֹ֣א עַמִּ֔י וְאָנֹכִ֖י לֹֽא־אֶהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶֽם׃ ס

7. But on the house of Judah I will have compassion1 and I will deliver them2 by Yahweh their God. Yet I will not deliver them3 by the bow or by the sword or by war with horses and with horsemen.

8. After she had weaned4 “No Mercy” she conceived5 and she bore6 a son.

9. Then He said7, “Call8 his name ‘Not My People’ for y’all are not my people and I am9 not y’all’s.

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

7. “On the house…”–There’s no preposition here, but I thought the addition smoothed out the English some.
“By Yahweh…by the bow, etc”–using the ב as one of agency/means.
“with horses/horsemen”–The pattern broke here of ו + ב so I think horses and horsemen may be describing the type of war rather than how God is not going to be saving his people. Not a huge issue.

8. “After she…”–Temporal use of the ו here with the wayyiqtol. She probably waited until after she weaned the child to have another. Not a lot different than when, but this is more explicit.

9. As much as I hate saying y’all and y’all’s, I did want to bring out the plural aspect of the 2nd person pronoun here. Please have mercy on me.

Footnotes

1. Piel yqtl 1cs רחם
2. Hif wqtl 1cs + 3mp suffix ישע
3. Hif yqtl 1cs + 3mp suffix ישע
4. Qal wyyqtl 3fs גמל
5. Qal wyyqtl 3fs הרה
6. Qal wyyqtl 3fs ילד
7. Qal wyyqtl 3ms אמר
8. Qal imv ms קרא
9. Qal yqtl 1cs היה

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 1:5-6

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 1:5-6

5 וְהָיָ֖ה בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא וְשָֽׁבַרְתִּי֙ אֶת־קֶ֣שֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּעֵ֖מֶק יִזְרְעֶֽאל׃

6 וַתַּ֤הַר עוֹד֙ וַתֵּ֣לֶד בַּ֔ת וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לוֹ֔ קְרָ֥א שְׁמָ֖הּ לֹ֣א רֻחָ֑מָה כִּי֩ לֹ֨א אוֹסִ֜יף ע֗וֹד אֲרַחֵם֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּֽי־נָשֹׂ֥א אֶשָּׂ֖א לָהֶֽם׃

5. And it will be1 in that day, that I will break2 the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.

6. Then she became pregnant3 again and she bore4 a daughter. Then He said5 to him, “Call6 her name ‘no mercy’ for I will have mercy7 no more8 on the house of Israel, that I will certainly9 forgive10 them.

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

6. “Mercy no more”–literally ‘I will not increase again, I will have mercy.’ The first verb often takes an imperfect and merges together like a helping verb. In other words, God is done having mercy on Israel.

“That I will certainly forgive them.”–This is a double doozey. This phrase is a combination of infinitive absolute + finite verb of the same root to show emphasis. It is also, however a figurative use of the word that is most often translated ‘to lift, raise etc’. I’m not 100% convinced that this is what is meant. Part of me wants to say he is using it to mean that God isn’t taking Israel as his bride (of course the masculine plural object make that understanding difficult). The third option is to say that God is rising up against them. Grammatically this is the easiest to defend, but usually when נשא is used like that there is another word mixed in as an indirect object. I’m going to stick with ‘forgive’ until I see more evidence otherwise.

Footnotes

1. Qal wqtl 3ms היה
2. Qal wqtl 1cs שבר
3. Qal wyyqtl 3fs הרה
4. Qal wyyqtl 3fs ילד
5. Qal wyyqtl 3ms אמר
6. Qal imv ms קרא
7. Hif yqtl 1cs יסף
8. Piel yqtl 1cs רחם
9. Qal yqtl 1cs נשא
10. Qal inf abs נשא

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Translating the Twelve: Hosea 1:2-4

Today’s “Translating the Twelve” is Hosea 1:2-4

2 תְּחִלַּ֥ת דִּבֶּר־יְהוָ֖ה בְּהוֹשֵׁ֑עַ פוַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־הוֹשֵׁ֗עַ לֵ֣ךְ קַח־לְךָ֞ אֵ֤שֶׁת זְנוּנִים֙ וְיַלְדֵ֣י זְנוּנִ֔ים כִּֽי־זָנֹ֤ה תִזְנֶה֙ הָאָ֔רֶץ מֵֽאַחֲרֵ֖י יְהוָֽה׃

3 וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ֙ וַיִּקַּ֔ח אֶת־גֹּ֖מֶר בַּת־דִּבְלָ֑יִם וַתַּ֥הַר וַתֵּֽלֶד־לוֹ֖ בֵּֽן׃

4 וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֵלָ֔יו קְרָ֥א שְׁמֹ֖ו יִזְרְעֶ֑אל כִּי־ע֣וֹד מְעַ֗ט וּפָ֨קַדְתִּ֜י אֶת־דְּמֵ֤י יִזְרְעֶאל֙ עַל־בֵּ֣ית יֵה֔וּא וְהִ֨שְׁבַּתִּ֔י מַמְלְכ֖וּת בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

 2. At the beginning, Yahweh spoke1 to Hosea, and Yahweh said2 to Hosea, “Go3, take4 for yourself a wife of immorality and children of immorality for ‘the land’ has continually5 acted as a harlot6 from following Yahweh.

3. So he went6 and he took7 Gomer, the daughter of Diblaim, and she became pregnant8 and she bore9 for him a son.

4. Then Yahweh said10, “Call11 his name Jezreel, because in a little while I will repay12 the blood of Jezreel against the house of Jehu and I will cause the reign of the house of Israel to end13.

Below I’ll parse the verbs and briefly discuss some of my syntactical choices if I have time and remember.

Syntactical Choices

2. “At the beginning”–I translated like it has a preposition even though it doesn’t. I would have liked to render it “the beginning of Yahweh’s speaking to Hosea” but I don’t think the grammar allows for that.
“wife of immorality and children of immorality”–Though I think it should be something like “an immoral wife and children from immorality” I tried to keep the repetition of the Hebrew since the word modifying both wife and children is the same.
“the land”–Probably a reference to the land of Israel.
“continually acted as a harlot”–infinitive + finite verb of the same root = emphatic. I think “continually” fits Israel’s case better than “great.”

Footnotes

1. Piel qtl 3ms דבר
2. Qal wyyqtl 3ms אמר
3. qal imv ms הלך
4. Qal imv ms לקח
5. Qal inf abs זנה (emphatic usage)
6. Qal wyyqtl 3ms הלך
7. Qal wyyqtl 3ms לקח
8. Qal wyyqtl 3fs הרה
9. Qal wyyqtl 3fs ילד
10. Qal wyyqtl 3ms אמר
11. Qal imv ms קרא
12. Qal wqtl 1cs פקד
13. Hif wqtl 1cs שבת

Categories: Translating the Twelve | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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